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Militant Islam Monitor > Articles > Part 2: U Of Michigan Prof Juan Cole Plays "Fantasy Islam" Promotes Muhammad As "Prophet Of Peace"

Part 2: U Of Michigan Prof Juan Cole Plays "Fantasy Islam" Promotes Muhammad As "Prophet Of Peace"

Cole's Historical Revisionism Whitewashes Islam's Trajectory Of Death And Destruction
December 19, 2018

The Fantasy Islam of the University of Michigan's Juan Cole (Part 2)


In Part 1 we saw how Cole had taken a selective approach to Islamic Doctrine and 7th Century Muslim history, had believed that there was human involvement in the writing of the Koran, had a certain amount of disconnect between what he wrote and sources he claimed showed support for that writing, and had exercised great freedom in determining the meaning of Koran verses because he was not concerned about what Muslims believed about their holy scripture.

There is much more to Cole's Fantasy Islam, so let's delve into it.

New time periods for Koran chapters

Cole determined his own personal chronology for the revelation of some Koran chapters:

Chapter 9

On pp. 176-180 Cole wrote that Chapter 9 had been revealed during and shortly after the Muslim conquest of Mecca in January 630. However, in Endnote 3, p. 227, Cole had written that in determining when Koran verses were "revealed," Theodor Noldeke's The History of the Quran had "set the chronological approach used in this book." It is interesting to note that Noldeke dated the bulk of Chapter 9 from late 630 into early 631 and as having nothing to do with the Muslim conquest of Mecca (Noldeke, pp. 179-183). Noldeke's time frame was also reported by Pickthall.[1]

Let's look at some parts of Chapter 9. In October 630 the Battle of Tabuk took place (although there was no actual fighting between the Muslims and the Byzantines). Cole stated that since the Battle of Tabuk had not been mentioned in the Koran, it was "likely a later fiction." However, numerous authoritative Muslim scholars have written that the following Koran verses in Chapter 9 were revealed in regards to the Battle of Tabuk: 38, 40, 63, 65, 71, 73, 81, 94-96, 102, 106-107, 117-118, 120, and 122-123.[2]

Now let's look at the first part of Chapter 9. These are among the verses that Cole claims were revealed about the conquest of Mecca in January 630. The reality is otherwise.

Abu Bakr, Muhammad's father-in-law and close friend, led the pilgrimage to Mecca in March 631. At this time 30-40 verses of Chapter 9 of the Koran were revealed and subsequently read to the non-Muslims in Mecca.[3] There is a difference of opinion about exactly which verses were "revealed," but one report stated that they consisted of the first 40 verses in Chapter 9.[4]Although there might be some disagreement about which particular verses were revealed and read at this time, 9:1-5 and 9:28 were definitely read to the non-Muslims in Mecca during this pilgrimage in 631.[5] And there are two verses from this time that are particularly interesting.

Koran 9:28-29

On p. 168 Cole stated that after the conquest of Mecca in January 630, 9:28 "outlawed the rites of polytheists at the Kaaba, in part because they were held to be ritually impure." On p. 179 Cole claimed that 9:29 concerned the Battle of Hunayn, which took place shortly after the conquest of Mecca. Cole admitted at this point that he was "engaged in a radical act of reinterpretation" of 9:29 (Endnote 7, p. 303). With regard to 9:29, on p. 206 Cole wrote that this verse

does not have anything to do with a poll tax on Jews and Christians but rather demands reparations from pagans guilty of launching aggressive wars.

But this is Cole's personally invented timeline and "radical" reinterpretation.

As mentioned above, 9:28 was among the verses announced in Mecca during Abu Bakr's pilgrimage in March 631. Here is 9:28:

O you who believe (in Allah's Oneness and in His Messenger Muhammad)! Verily, the Mushrikun are Najasun (impure). So let them not come near Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah) after this year; and if you fear poverty, Allah will enrich you if He wills, out of His bounty. Surely, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.

This verse told the non-Muslims that after this year they would no longer be permitted to come into Mecca because of their impurity.

But after 9:28 was revealed there was concern among the Meccans that they would lose money if the non-Muslims were prohibited from coming to Mecca:

…when Allah commanded that the polytheists be prevented from coming near Masjid Al-Haram whether during the Hajj or any other time, the Quraish said: "It will certainly infringe on our commerce and markets during Hajj, and it will deprive us from our gains," but Allah compensated them for that with the command to wage war on the People of the Book until they become Muslims or they pay the Jizyah with willful submission, and feel themselves subdued. [6]

9:29 was then revealed as a result of the anticipated negative commercial impact on the Meccans from the "revelation" of 9:28. Here is 9:29, the command to wage war on the People of the Book:

Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

Cole's re-dating of Chapter 9 and applying it to events that occurred even before that chapter was revealed is a good example of his "radical" reinterpretation of Islam.

Chapter 18

In Part 1 we saw that Cole had claimed that Chapter 18 had been re-dated to 629 or 630, making it a late Medinan chapter; however his source for this claim actually refuted what Cole said. In addition, Noldeke had written that Chapter 18 was from the Second Meccan Period (Noldeke, p. 107), and Pickthall had also reported this chapter was from that Meccan period[7]

Chapter 48

On pp. 161-166 Cole claimed that Chapter 48 was revealed about the "peaceful" Muslim conquest of Mecca in January 630. In Endnote 24, pp. 300-301, he wrote that, "Many commentators displace verses of Success 48 onto the story of the Treaty of Hudaibiya [which occurred in March 628]." Cole is correct in that many "commentators" ascribed Chapter 48 to the Treaty of Hudaybiya. These "commentators" included numerous authoritative Muslim scholars over the centuries[8] and Noldeke (Noldeke, p. 174). In fact Noldeke wrote that "no one can doubt that…sura 48 [referred] to the Pact of Al-Hudaybiyya" (Noldeke, p. 47). The evidence indicates that it is Cole who has "displaced" Chapter 48.

These are good examples of Cole's free-wheeling approach in taking liberties to create his own history, even when it goes against the source he supposedly relied on for the "chronological approach" he used in his book.

Muhammad and the Sermon on the Mount

On p. 2 Cole wrote that:

…a profound distress at the carnage of the age led Muhammad to spend the first half of his prophetic career (610-622) imagining an alternative sort of society, one firmly grounded in practices of peace…Muhammad in these years resembles much more the Jesus of the Sermon on the Mount than is usually admitted.

Jesus' Sermon on the Mount is found in Matthew 5-7, and some have referred to the Beatitudes (Mt. 5:3-10) as the centerpiece of this sermon.[9] Here are those Beatitudes:

Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied. Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God. Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

In contrast, here are some of the things Muhammad had to say during the time period of 610-622:

In the very beginning days of Islam Muhammad was already talking about treasures to be acquired through Muslim military conquests. Here is a report about this from an Arab merchant who briefly stayed with Muhammad's uncle, al-‘Abbas; the individuals with Muhammad in this story were his wife Khadija and his young cousin ‘Ali:

I was a merchant, and I came during the pilgrimage and stayed with al-‘Abbas. While we were with him, a man came out to pray and stood facing the Ka'bah. Then a woman came out and stood praying with him, followed by a youth who stood praying with him. I said, "'Abbas, what is this religion? I do not know what this religion is." He answered, "This is Muhammad b. ‘Abdallah, who claims that God has sent him as His Messenger with this [religion], and that the treasures of Chusroes and Caesar will be given to him by conquest. [10]

In 614 Muhammad met with his uncle because Muhammad's message of conquest was causing concern among the non-Muslim Meccans:

Abu Talib said to him, "Nephew, how is it that your tribe are complaining of you and claiming that you are reviling their gods and saying this, that, and the other?"…the Messenger of God spoke and said, "Uncle, I want them to utter one saying. If they say it, the Arabs will submit to them and the non-Arabs will pay the jizyah to them"…"There is no deity but God."[11]

Beginning around 614 Muhammad made it a regular practice to approach the members of Arab tribes coming to Mecca during the pilgrimage season, or for fairs, and to preach to them about Islam. Here is the message of conquest that he would preach to them:

…he approached each tribe in its halting place saying: O people! say [sic] there is no god but Allah; you will prosper and become masters of Arabia, and the Persians will surrender before you in humiliation, and if you believe you will become kings in paradise.[12]

And in September 622, shortly before Muhammad left Mecca for Medina, a group of non-Muslim Meccans were gathered outside Muhammad's front door. During the encounter with this group, Muhammad confirmed that if they became Muslims they would be the "kings of the Arabs and the non-Arabs," but if they did not become Muslims they would "meet with slaughter from him":

…among them [the Meccans] was Abu Jahl b. Hisham, who said, while they were waiting at his door, "Muhammad claims that if you follow him in his religion, you shall be the kings of the Arabs and the non-Arabs, that after your death you shall be brought back to life and your lot shall then be gardens like the gardens of Jordan. He also claims that if you do not do this, you shall meet with slaughter from him, and that after your death you shall be brought back to life, and your lot shall then be a fire, in which you shall burn." Then the Messenger of God came out, took a handful of dust and said, "Yes, I do say that; and you are one of them."[13]

On p. 78 Cole wrote:

The Qur'an reaffirms Jesus' teachings in the Sermon on the Mount and holds them up as an example for all.

This was written immediately after Cole had written about Koran 28:52-54, verses that he claimed showed that "Muhammad attracted Arab Christian admirers up north, and that he thought well of their values. This is how Cole wrote those verses:

Those to whom we gave a Book before this one have believed in it. When it is recited to them they say, ‘we have believed in it, it is the truth from our lord. Even before this, we were monotheists.' They will be given their reward twice over inasmuch as they patiently endure and repel evil with good deeds and share the provisions we gave them."

But these verses do not show that Muhammad attracted Arab Christian admirers and "thought well of their values." According to authoritative tafsirs, these verses were about Jews and Christians who had converted to Islam.[14]

In the Beatitudes Jesus' message focused on blessings, mercy, comforting mourners, and peace. In contrast, during 610-622 Muhammad's message was about conquering non-Muslims and obtaining their treasures, and rewarding those who converted to Islam and killing those who did not.

The Battle of Badr

On p. 3 Cole wrote that the Battle of Badr was a "defensive battle" that Muhammad saw as "protecting Roman churches in Transjordan and Syria." On p. 124 Cole noted that he had described the battle "as the Qur'an describes it." Cole's version stated, on pp. 124-125, that in mid-March 624

Muhammad was instructed by the revelation to go out of Medina to make a defensive stand…Muhammad was leading a preemptive raid in the face of enemy plans for a lethal assault on Medina…[there were] two distinct bands of Meccans heading toward the market town of Badr…one only lightly armed and the other a formidable war party armored in corselets and greaves.

On p. 125 Cole wrote that Muhammad's forces consisted:

…of not only of Emigrants [Muslims originally from Mecca] and Khazraji Helpers [Medinan Muslims] but also their pagan clients, along with an Orthodox Jewish battalion (who probably equipped the entire army) and perhaps a Christian platoon of Banu Jafna.

Cole claimed that Muhammad's forces came upon both Meccan war parties and after hard fighting routed the Meccans.

On pp. 128-129 Cole wrote that later Muslim scholars created a false story that the original intent of Muhammad was to raid a Meccan caravan. But that story had been similarly related by early Muslim scholars that Cole himself had relied on, and also by later Muslim scholars. Here is that story:

In March 624 Muhammad led an expedition to intercept a Quraysh caravan returning from Syria; the caravan was led by Abu Sufyan and accompanied by 70 horsemen. Al-Tabari explained:

When the Messenger of God heard about them he called together his companions and told them of the wealth they had with them and the fewness of their numbers. The Muslims set out with no other object than Abu Sufyan and the horsemen with him. They did not think that these were anything but (easy) booty and did not suppose that there would be a great battle when they met them. [15]

A modern, award-winning biography of Muhammad noted that after Muhammad found out that the wealth of the lightly-guarded caravan amounted to 50 thousand gold dinars, he

immediately encouraged the Muslims to rush out and intercept the caravan to make up for their property and wealth they were forced to give up in Makkah. He did not give orders binding to everyone, but rather gave them full liberty to go out or stay back, thinking that it would be just a task on a small scale.[16]

However, Abu Sufyan heard about the Muslim expedition, sent to Mecca for help and changed his route. The Muslims missed the caravan but ended up fighting the relief force from Mecca consisting of 950 men. The Muslim force consisted of 313 men, a combination of Emigrants (77) and Ansar (236); in spite of Cole's claim, there were no non-Muslims involved.[17]

The Meccans were defeated. Muhammad had promised the Muslim warriors they could "keep all the booty" they took, and those killed while fighting would be admitted to Paradise.[18]Afterwards, Chapter 8 of the Koran was revealed to Muhammad about events that happened during this battle.

According to Cole, the intent of the Muslims in the battle of Badr was to defend Medina and Christian churches. According to over a thousand years of authoritative Muslim scholarship, the intent of the Muslims was to capture a lightly protected Meccan caravan full of wealth.

The "peaceful" conquest of Mecca

On pp. 161-169 Cole wrote about what he claimed was Muhammad's peaceful entry into Mecca in January 630, and the non-Muslim Meccans acceptance "by acclimation" of Muhammad's leadership; Cole wrote that it was "not a military triumph but a success of inner divine peace." Cole said that there had been no violence involved, and Muhammad's entry into Mecca more resembled "the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1963 march on Washington than a military campaign" (p. 199). "Militants" among the Meccan leadership, such as Khalid ibn al-Walid and Abu Sufyan (a cousin of Muhammad), "simply threw in the towel" (p. 200). And Abu Sufyan was even "entirely amnestied" (p. 169).

Let's start off addressing Cole's error-laden version of events with the fact that Khalid ibn al-Walid had converted to Islam in May/June 629[19] and became known as the "Sword of Allah." Al-Walid actually led one of the Muslim armies into Mecca:

The Messenger of Allah continued on his way, until he entered Makkah from above and he ordered Khalid bin Al-Waleed to enter it from below and he said: "If any of Quraish opposes you, kill him and proceed until you meet me at As-Safa." And none opposed them without being killed.[20]

And here is the process by which Abu Sufyan was "entirely amnestied." Muhammad had camped with his army outside Mecca. Abu Sufyan secretly approached the encampment to see what the Meccans would be facing. As he approached he met al-‘Abbas, Muhammad's uncle.

He informed Abu Sufyan of the situation and advised him to accept Islam and persuade his people to surrender before Muhammad; otherwise, his head would be struck off.[21]

Abu Sufyan was given temporary protection by al-‘Abbas. But the threat to cut off Abu Sufyan's head almost became a reality when al-‘Abbas brought him in front of Muhammad the next morning. Muhammad asked Abu Sufyan to acknowledge that there was only one god, Allah; Abu Sufyan did so. But then uncertainty on Abu Sufyan's part became a factor; Muhammad said,

Woe to you Abu Sufyan! Is it not time that you acknowledge me as Allah's Prophet and Messenger?" Abu Sufyan said, "I still have some doubt as to that." Abbas intervened saying, "Embrace Islam before you lose your head." Abu Sufyan then recited the confession of faith and thus he entered Islam.[22]

So when threatened in the presence of Muhammad with having his head cut off, Abu Sufyan resolved his uncertainty about Muhammad's status as Allah's Prophet and Messenger, and he became a Muslim. This was the way in which Abu Sufyan was "entirely amnestied."

The story of the Muslim conquest of Mecca was similarly related by both Muslim scholars Cole accepted and those he rejected. These scholars noted that Muhammad approached Mecca at the head of ten thousand Muslim warriors. Before they entered Mecca, Muhammad specifically ordered the killing of certain men and women for actions they had earlier taken against the Muslims.

The army of ten thousand Muslim warriors entered Mecca from various directions, and after some brief fighting, the Meccans surrendered to the superior force. After their surrender, the Meccans started converting to Islam. Ibn Sa'd, one of Cole's early Muslim scholars, wrote:

The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, forced his entry into Makkah. Then the people embraced Islam willingly or unwillingly.[23]

A later Muslim scholar explained:

….the Makkans came to realize that the only way to success lay in the avenue of Islam. They complied with the new realities and gathered to pledge loyalty to the Prophet.[24]

So the non-Muslims of Mecca

gathered together in Mecca to do homage to the apostle in Islam…he sat (waiting) for them on al-Safa while ‘Umar remained below him imposing conditions on the people who paid homage to the apostle promising to hear and obey God and His apostle to the best of their ability.[25]

In terms of lives lost during the battle for Mecca, there were estimates that the Meccans lost 12-13 men and the Muslims lost three.[26]

After the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad said,

If anyone should say, ‘The apostle killed men in Mecca, say God permitted His apostle to do so but He does not permit you.[27]

The "pastoralists relinquished their faith"

On pp. 190-192 Cole wrote about the Qur'an differentiating between the "urban, settled Believers" and the "surrounding bedouin [sic] nomads." The former were generally knowledgeable about their religion and committed to it; the latter were not. On p. 192 Cole wrote this about these Bedouins (pastoralists):

…they had virtually no appreciation for his [Muhammad's] key teachings – the prohibitions on coercion of conscience and on aggressive warfare. After Muhammad's death on June 8, 632, some of these pastoralists…relinquished their faith."

What Cole so politely referred to as "relinquished their faith" is better known as the Wars of Apostasy.

After Muhammad died there were many Arab tribes that left Islam. This resulted in the Wars of Apostasy (Riddah Wars) under Abu Bakr, the first "Rightly Guided" Caliph. Abu Bakr sent Muslim armies not only against the apostate tribes, but also against Arab tribes that had not been previously conquered during the time of Muhammad. The commander of each army had a letter from Abu Bakr to be read to the people before any non-Muslim tribe was attacked. The letter explained:

I have sent to you someone at the head of an army of the Muhajirun and the Ansar and those who follow [them] in good works. I ordered him not to fight anyone or to kill anyone until he has called him to the cause of God; so that those who respond to him and acknowledge [Him] and renounce [unbelief] and do good works, [my envoy] shall accept him and help him to [do right], but I have ordered him to fight those who deny [Him] for that reason. So he will not spare any one of them he can gain mastery over, [but may] burn them with fire, slaughter them by any means, and take women and children captive; nor shall he accept from anyone anything except Islam.[28]

The commander of one of the Muslim armies was Khalid bin al-Walid. Here is a command that Abu Bakr gave to Khalid:

When you encamp someplace, make the call to prayer and the iqamah. Then, if the people make the call to prayer and the iqamah, leave them alone; but if they do not do so, there is no [course] but to raid them. [In that case] kill them by every means, by fire or whatever else.[29]

There was another report about the wording of this letter that Abu Bakr sent with Khalid:

I have sent Khalid to you with the Muhajirun and the Ansar and those who follow them with good conduct. And I have ordered him not to fight anyone until he has called him to the worship of Allah; so whoever enters the religion of Allah and performs righteous deeds, he will accept that from him, but whoever refuses, he will not allow him to remain upon that. He will burn them by fire and take their women and children captive.[30]

And Abu Bakr gave Khalid a specific command when he sent him against the Bani Hanifah in Al-Yamamah:

Then if Allah grants you victory over them, I warn you against letting them live: Kill their wounded, seek out those of them who flee, put the captives among them to the sword and strike terror among them by killing and burn them by fire. And I warn you against contradicting my orders. Peace (be upon you).[31]

Khalid took Abu Bakr's words to heart on many occasions during this war. Here is how it was later described:

The outstanding case of apostasy was the secession of the tribes of Arabia after the death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr, the first caliph, warned them first to return to Islam, and those who did not return were severely fought, especially by Khalid ibn al-Walid, who burned a great number of them in spite of objections raised regarding the penalty of burning. The leaders of the apostate tribes were severely punished and most of them were slain. An eminent chronicler, al-Baladhuri, reports that nobody escaped death save those who returned to Islam.[32]

Al-Baladuri wrote this about one of the battles:

They fought against Khalid, and one of the Moslems fell a martyr. By Allah's help at last, the "polytheist" troops were dispersed, and Khalid had on that day the apostates burned. When abu-Bakr was told about it, he said, "I shall not sheathe a sword that Allah had unsheathed against the ‘unbelievers.'"[33]

Cole is helping to perpetuate a myth when he claims that Muhammad's "key teachings" consisted of "the prohibitions on coercion of conscience and on aggressive warfare." The aggression and brutality exhibited by the Muslims under the leadership of Abu Bakr was done to force Arab tribes to accept Islam, or to return to Islam if they had left. Abu Bakr was a close friend and the father-in-law of Muhammad, and he was the first of the four "Rightly Guided" Caliphs after Muhammad died. They were referred to as the "Rightly Guided" Caliphs because it was believed that they most closely followed the teachings and example of Muhammad.

On to Part 3

In Part 3 we will look at more of Cole's "radical" interpretations of Islamic history and doctrine. We will begin by looking at Cole's claim that during Muhammad's lifetime Islam was spread peacefully and no one was forced to become a Muslim. We will also be examining Cole's claim that stoning adulterers is not a part of Islamic Doctrine, and I will show how to prove that stoning is supported by Islamic Doctrine and is a part of Islam.

Dr. Stephen M. Kirby is the author of five books about Islam. His latest book is The Lure of Fantasy Islam: Exposing the Myths and Myth Makers.

[1] The Meaning of the Glorious Koran, p. 191.

[2] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Vol. 4. pp. 427-429, 463, 485-486, 506-507, 513-515, 512-516, 528-531, 539-540, and 542-543; Tafsir Al-Jalalayn, pp. 417, 422, 425, and 433; Tafsir Ahsanul-Bayan, Vol. 2, pp. 354-355, 388, 398-399, 405-406, 408-410, and 419-423. Pickthall wrote that verses 38-99 referred to the "Tabuk campaign" – see The Meaning of the Glorious Koran, p. 191; Tafsir Ibn ‘Abbas, trans. Mokrane Guezzou (Louisville, KY: Fons Vitae, 2008), p. 234; and ‘Abd ar-Rahman b. Nasir as-Sa'di, Tafsir As-Sa'di, trans. S. Abd al-Hamid, Vol. 2 (Floral Park, New York: The Islamic Literary Foundation: 2014), pp. 144-145. Al-Waqidi wrote that the following verses referred to Tabuk: 38- 41, 43-45, 47-48, 50-69, 73-82, 84, 86-87, 90-111, 113-114, 117-118, 120-124, and 126-129 – see Muhammad b. ‘Umar al-Waqidi, The Life of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi's Kitab al-Maghazi, trans. Rizwi Faizer, Amal Ismail, and AbdulKader Tayob, ed. Rizwi Faizer (London and New York: Routledge, 2013), pp. 519-527.

[3] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Vol. 4, p. 371; and Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari: The Last Years of the Prophet, Vol. IX, trans. and annotated Ismail K. Poonawala (Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1990), pp. 78-79.

[4] The History of al-Tabari: The Last Years of the Prophet, p. 77.

[5] The Meaning of the Glorious Koran, p. 191; The History of al-Tabari: The Last Years of the Prophet, pp. 77-78; Tafsir Ahsanul-Bayan, Vol. 2, pp. 321-326, and 344; Tafsir as-Sa'di, Vol. 2, pp. 123-126, and 136; and Muhammad ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), trans. Alfred Guillaume (Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 618-619.

[6] ‘Imaduddeen Isma'eel ibn Katheer al-Qurashi, Winning the Hearts and Souls: Expeditions and Delegations in the Lifetime of Prophet Muhammad, trans. Research Department of Darussalam (Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Darussalam, 2010), p.116. The same explanation for the "revelation" of 9:29 was given in Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Vol. 4, pp. 403-404; andThe Life of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), p. 620.

And there were additional sources of "commerce" available after the expulsion of the polytheists:

A series of Muslim conquests followed and a wealth of spoils of war came to the Muslims. Moreover, when the whole of the Arabian Peninsula had been converted to Islam, there was an influx of pilgrims, their numbers increased…

Tafsir Ahsanul-Bayan, Vol. 2, p. 345. The Tafsir Al-Jalalayn (p. 404) also mentioned Allah would enrich the Muslims "through conquest and jizya" to replace the lost commerce with the polytheists.

[7] The Meaning of the Glorious Koran, p. 294.

[8] Abu'l-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Wahidi, Al-Wahidi's Asbab al-Nuzul, trans. Mokrane Guezzou (Louisville, KY: Fons Vitae, 2008), p. 201; Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Vol. 9, p. 122; Tafsir Ahsanul-Bayan, Vol. 5, pp. 174-175; Tafsir Al-Jalalayn, p. 1097; The Life of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), p. 505; and The Meaning of the Glorious Koran, pp. 527-528.

[9] E.g., Steven Jonathan Rummelsburg, "St. Augustine's Commentary on the Sermon on the Mount," Crisis Magazine, March 27, 2014 – accessible athttps://www.crisismagazine.com/2014/st-augustines-commentary-on-the-sermon-on-the-mount.

[10] Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari: Muhammad at Mecca, Vol. VI, trans. and annotated W. Montgomery Watt and M. V. McDonald (Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1988), p. 82. Chusroes (Chosroes) was the King of Persia, and the name Caesar referred to Heraclius, the Byzantine Emperor.

[11] The History of al-Tabari: Muhammad at Mecca, p. 96.

[12] Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Sa'd ibn Mani' al-Zuhri al-Basri, Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, trans. S. Moinul Haq (New Delhi, India: Kitab Bhavan, 2009), Vol. 1, p. 250.

[13] The History of al-Tabari: Muhammad at Mecca, p. 143.

[14] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Vol. 7, pp. 420-421; Tafsir Al-Jalalayn, p. 841; and Tafsir Ahsanul-Bayan, Vol. 4, pp. 205-206.

[15] Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari: The Foundation of the Community, Vol. VII, trans. and annotated W. Montgomery Watt and M. V. McDonald (Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1987), p. 29. Ibn Ishaq also noted that the Muslims' purpose for this expedition was to get the "booty" of the caravan – see The Life of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), pp. 289, 321 and 610. That same purpose was also noted in Muhammad bin Ismail bin Al-Mughirah al-Bukhari, Sahih Al-Bukhari, trans. Muhammad Muhsin Khan (Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Darussalam, 1997), Vol. 5, Book 64, No. 3951, p. 179, and No. 4418, p. 425.

[16] Safiur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Darussalam, 2008), p. 251.

[17] The History of al-Tabari: The Foundation of the Community, p. 39.

[18] The History of al-Tabari: The Foundation of the Community, p. 55.

[19] Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam, Vol. VIII, trans. and annotated Michael Fishbein (Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1997), p. 143.

[20] Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul Wahhab at-Tamimi, Abridged Biography of Prophet Muhammad, ed. ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Nasir Al-Barrak, ‘Abdul ‘Azeez bin ‘Abdullah Ar-Rajihi, and Muhammad Al-‘Ali Al-Barrak (Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Darussalam, 2003), p. 257.

[21] The Sealed Nectar, p. 462.

[22] Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri, When the Moon Split (Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Darussalam, 2009), p. 326.

[23] Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, Vol. 2, p. 168.

[24] The Sealed Nectar, p. 470.

[25] The Life of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), p. 553.

[26] The Life of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), p. 550.

[27] The Life of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), p. 555.

[28] Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari: The Conquest of Arabia, Vol. X, trans. and annotated Fred M. Donner (Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1993), p. 57.

[29] The History of al-Tabari: The Conquest of Arabia, p. 100. The iqamah is the second Muslim call to prayer, made just to those gathered inside the mosque immediately before the actual prayer starts.

[30] Abridged Biography of Prophet Muhammad, p. 331.

[31] Ibid., p. 345.

[32] Majid Khadduri, War and Peace in the Law of Islam (Clark, NJ: The Lawbook Exchange Ltd., 2006), p. 77. Khalid ibn al-Walid was known as The Sword of Allah. For other incidents of Khalid capturing apostates and then burning them alive, see Abridged Biography of Prophet Muhammad, pp. 336, and 359-360.

[33] Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Jabir al-Baladhuri, The Origins of the Islamic State, Being a Translation from the Arabic, Accompanied with Annotations, Geographic and Historic Notes of the Kitab Fituh Al-Buldan of Al-Imam Abu-L Abbas Ahmad Ibn-Jabir Al-Baladhuri, trans. Philip Khuri Hitti (1916; rpt. Lexington, Kentucky: Ulan Press, 2014), p. 148.


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