Looking Into The Heart Of The American Muslim Alliance
Iowa State Rep Ako Abdul-Samad Revives Terror Tied Radical Muslim Organization
Dr. Stephen M. Kirby
The American Muslim Alliance (AMA) was founded as a non-profit organization in California in 1994 (EIN 94-3208595); Agha Khalid Saeed was its founder and the first chairman. The AMA was headquartered in Fremont, CA from 1994 until at least 2015.
Over the years the AMA had fluctuating financial support. According to available IRS Form 990's, no contributions were reported in 2003 and 2004. The highpoint in annual contributions was 2007, with $135,451.00. Annual contributions diminished after that, with total contributions for 2010 being only $3,232.00. There were apparently no Form 990's filed after 2010.
As of August 14, 2017, the AMA showed being "FTB Suspended," meaning that the AMA had failed to meet tax requirements and the AMA's "powers, rights and privileges, which include the right to use the entity's name in California" had been suspended by the California State Franchise Tax Board. At some point the AMA had obtained an address in Washington DC. And in 2017 the AMA also obtained an address in Iowa.
Iowa State Representative Ako Abdul-Samad has been affiliated with the AMA for almost ten years; at some point in 2017 he reportedly became the new chairman of the AMA. On June 1, 2017, Abdul-Samad filed Articles of Incorporation for an organization named American Muslim Alliance of Iowa, Inc. (Iowa Business Number 548134). The Articles of Incorporation state that
"The number of directors now constituting the board of directors of the corporation is four (4), and the names and addresses of those persons are as follow:"
But there is only one name listed: Ako Abdul-Samad. And the document is signed by Abdul-Samad as both "Incorporator" and AMA Iowa "Chair."
Toward the end of June 2017, Abdul-Samad announced that "effective immediately," he was moving the AMA's "headquarters from Washington D.C. to Des Moines." However, as of August 14, 2017, the recently revised AMA website showed an official address in Newark, CA, while the AMA Facebook page showed a Washington DC address.
AMA Chairman Abdul-Samad said that the AMA needed a "new face." So what did the AMA's "old face" look like?
AMA Second Annual Conference - 1997
This conference took place in October 1997, and during the conference the AMA distributed anti-Semitic and Holocaust revisionist material.
Islamic Association for Palestine (IAP) - 1997
Starting in 1987 the IAP served as the "primary voice" of Hamas within the United States. AMA Chairman Agha Saeed spoke at the IAP's December 1997 Conference. One of the panels on which he spoke was titled "Zionism: A Racist and Colonialist Ideology"; on this panel he was joined by Sami al-Arian.
Another speaker was Ahmed al-Kufahi. In his presentation he said:
"In Islam, if your enemy occupies a small piece of your land, then you have to declare jihad against the enemy. Jihad becomes a must and a religious obligation on all Muslims to go and fight the enemy…Palestine is occupied by the enemy."
Saeed was also a guest speaker at the 1996 and 1999 IAP conferences.
Palestine: 50 Years of Occupation - 1998
On May 24, 1998 at Brooklyn College, a conference took place in the Whiteman Auditorium titled Palestine: 50 Years of Occupation. The conference was organized by the Islamic American Alliance for Palestine (IAAP) and the Islamic Association for Palestine (IAP); it was co-sponsored by the AMA, the Holy Land Foundation (HLF), the Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR), and other Muslim organizations. Outside the auditorium vendors were handing out Hamas and Holy Land Foundation-related materials; inside the auditorium the audience of about 500 was being reminded of the Jews' "infidelity," "stealth" and "deceit," and that Jews were descendants of the apes.
United for al-Quds - 1999
On May 29, 1999, the AMA was a co-sponsor of a conference in Santa Clara, CA titled United for al-Quds (the Arabic name for Jerusalem); other sponsors included the HLF and the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA). One of the speakers was AMA Chairman Agha Saeed, who spoke on the topic "Al Quds in the American Muslim Agenda." Other speaker topics included "Al-Quds: Occupation and Resistance," and "Jerusalem: First and Last Scene of Faith's Struggle."
Steven Emerson later wrote that the purpose of this conference was
"to promote the Islamic State of Palestine in place of the current State of Israel. One speaker, Hatem Bazian, argued, ‘in the Hadith, the Day of Judgement will never happen until you fight the Jews…until the trees and the stones will say, oh Muslim, there is a Jew hiding behind me. Come and kill him!"
Hillary Clinton's Senate Campaign
A goal of the AMA was to get Muslim-Americans more involved in American politics. But there was a problem in 2000 when they became involved in Hillary Clinton's New York Senate campaign. This is from an October 2000 New York Times article:
"Hillary Rodham Clinton said yesterday that she would return $50,000 in political contributions received at a fundraising event sponsored by a Muslim organization based in California.
Mrs. Clinton said she was offended by remarks attributed to members of the organization, the American Muslim Alliance. The group's president [Agha Saeed] has been quoted as defending a United Nations resolution that he said allowed for the use of armed force by Palestinians against Israel, while other members have been accused of making anti-Semitic remarks…"The statements that are attributed to the organization and some of its members are offensive and outrageous," she said." 
Former New York Mayor Ed Koch had this to say about the matter:
"This was a vicious, dirty trick," said Koch, referring to Muslim groups opposed to Israel. "Their intent was to smear her and convey that instead of being pro-Israeli, she is pro-Arafat. They are trying to destroy her. It is an obvious dirty trick, and it should get the back of our hand."
It would take a lot of "offensive and outrageous" remarks for a politician in the year 2000 to return $50,000 in campaign contributions.
I mentioned previously that the AMA's website had been recently revised. The previous website had been taken down sometime around August 5, 2017; the revised site was in place as of August 14, 2017, but the prominent pictures of the individuals we will be examining below had been removed. The reality is that the AMA's connection to anti-Semitic and anti-Israel remarks is not at all unusual. The AMA has even supported terrorists who hated Jews and the United States and wanted to destroy Israel. The evidence of this has been removed from the AMA website; fortunately I made numerous screenshots of the AMA website on June 25, 2017, and we will use those screen shots.
Mohamed T. Mehdi (M.T. Mehdi)
On the previous AMA website was this picture of Mohamed T. Mehdi standing with Malcolm X. Mehdi was influential in Malcolm X being allowed to make a pilgrimage to Mecca after converting to Islam in 1964.
But Mehdi was an interesting figure for other reasons. He actually said that Sirhan Sirhan was justified in his 1968 killing of Robert Kennedy:
"Apologists for Sirhan quickly sprang up. For example, Mohamed T. Mehdi, secretary-general of the Action Committee on American-Arab Relations, published "Kennedy and Sirhan: Why."
According to Mehdi, Sirhan's act had a rational rationale: "The one and only reasonable explanation for Sirhan's decision is to bring the tragedy of Palestine to the attention of the American people so that the people of the United States would not continue the strange policy of helping Zionist Jews of Europe and elsewhere go to the home of Christian and Moslem people of Palestine."
Mehdi concluded that Sirhan had acted in justifiable self-defense: ‘[W]hen Robert F. Kennedy supports Israel against the Arabs, he is assuming the role of an Israeli high ranking official…. Sirhan was defending himself against those 50 Phantom jets Kennedy was sending to Israel.'"
In 1975 Mehdi had this interesting comment about the PLO killing of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich:
"‘We have condemned the PLO terrorism at Munich and we have condemned the causes.' He said the Israeli athletes had displaced Palestinians at the games. ‘Israel can never ever have peace if they continue to steal land,' Mehdi said."
In June 1993 Omar Abdel Rahman was arrested with several of his followers. They were accused of plotting a day of terror for the United States that included assassinations and synchronized bombings of the U.N. headquarters, and bombings of a federal building and tunnels and a bridge linking New York City and New Jersey.
Abdel Rahman and his followers went on trial in January 1995. In February 1995, Mehdi was listed by the United States Attorney's office in New York as one of 172 "unindicted persons who may be alleged as co-conspirators" in the trial of Abdel Rahman and his followers.
In October 1995 Abdel Rahman and nine of his followers were found guilty on 48 out of 50 counts, and Abdel Rahman was sentenced to life in prison.
Mohamed T. Mehdi: anti-Zionist, anti-Israel, and a supporter of terrorists. An interesting background for someone so prominently displayed on the previous AMA website. But with the AMA it is not unusual.
Dr. Aafia Siddiqui ("Lady al-Qaeda")
On the previous AMA website was this picture showing eight individuals on-stage in front of a banner stating: "Due Process & Equal Justice, The Tragic Case of Dr. Aafia Siddiqui, 26 August 2012." This banner referred to a seminar put on by the "Aafia Movement," an organization calling for the freeing of Aafia Siddiqui.
So who is Aafia Siddiqui? Here is a quick overview:
1. She was referred to as "Lady al-Qaeda" in a 2014 Washington Post article. 
2. Siddiqui was born in Pakistan in 1972 and later moved to the United States to attend college, earning a doctorate from Brandeis University. She was married and had three children.
3. After the 9-11 attack she divorced her husband and moved back to Pakistan.
4. While there she reportedly married a nephew of Khalid Sheik Mohammed, the mastermind of the 9-11 attack, and disappeared for five years.
5. In July 2008 she was captured by Afghan authorities
"who found a number of items in her possession, including handwritten notes that referred to a "mass casualty attack" and that listed various locations in the United States, including Plum Island, the Empire State Building, the Statue of Liberty, Wall Street, and the Brooklyn Bridge. Other notes in SIDDIQUI's possession referred to the construction of "dirty bombs," and discussed various ways to attack "enemies," including by destroying reconnaissance drones, using underwater bombs, and deploying gliders."
6. U.S. officials went to question her. Unbeknownst to them, she was unsecured. She grabbed an Army officer's rifle, screamed "Allah Akbar" and opened fire, missing the officials. One official returned fire and wounded her twice.
In 2010 she was tried in U.S. federal court in New York on attempted murder and assault charges. As a Newsweek article described it:
"There, she did herself no favors. She was outspoken, demanding that anyone of Jewish origin be excluded from the jury. ‘If they have a Zionist or Israeli background…they are all mad at me,' she told Judge Richard Berman, who had to ask her to leave the court room at some points because of her outbursts. ‘They should be excluded if you want to be fair.… This is a verdict coming from Israel, not America…'"
Here is another report about some of her comments:
"During court proceedings two weeks earlier, Siddiqui, who has been described by FBI Director Robert Mueller as an "operative and facilitator of Al Qaeda," stated that Jews should be excluded from her jury pool. ‘If they have a Zionist or Israeli background they are all mad at me,' Siddiqui said. ‘I have a feeling everyone here is them, subject to genetic testing, They should be excluded.'"
On February 3, 2010 the jury found her guilty of the following crimes:
1. One count of attempting to kill U.S. nationals outside the United States;
2. One count of attempting to kill U.S. officers and employees;
3. One count of armed assault of U.S. officers and employees;
4. One count of using and carrying a firearm during and in relation to a crime of violence; and
5. Three counts of assault of U.S. officers and employees.
On September 23, 2010, she was sentenced to 86 years in prison.
But even before Siddiqui was sentenced, the AMA had come to her support. On May 6, 2010 a "Human Rights Rally" was held for Siddiqui in Manhattan. The organizers wanted to "convey the message loud and clear" that the arrest and conviction of Siddiqui was done "Not in Our Name." The AMA was one of the "Endorsers" of that rally.
In 2012 AMA Chairman Agha Saeed stated that "our most highly respected Sister, Dr. Aafia, is the most prominent ‘prisoner of war.'" And the AMA appears to have participated in the seminar that year calling for Siddiqui to be freed. And in that year the AMA started an international effort for postcards calling for Siddiqui's freedom to be delivered to American embassies and to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.
Also in 2012, Iowa State Representative Ako Abdul-Samad got involved in the Siddiqui cause. A press conference was held that year in which supporters of Siddiqui called for her release, and also called on the Pakistani government to issue visas to a list of individuals, including Ako Abdul-Samad, so they could
visit Pakistan and educate the Pakistani public about the reservoirs of goodwill for Dr Aafia that exist even in the united States.
In 2013, both Saeed and Abdul-Samad signed a letter to "President Barack Hussain Obama & Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif" calling for an end to the "injustice" and to allow Siddiqui to return to Pakistan.
It is interesting to note that over the years various terrorist groups have also expressed concern for Siddiqui and even made repeated requests for Siddiqui in hostage exchanges. This is from an article in Azan, the online magazine published by the Taliban in Pakistan:
"[In January 2013] The Mujahideen punished the Algerian apostates and the French disbelievers by conducting an operation in an Algerian gas field and taking more than 60 westerners as captives. The Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb asked for the release of Dr. Afia Siddiqui and Shaykh Umar Abdul Rahman (May Allah free them both) in exchange for these prisoners."
The Islamic State (ISIS) also joined in the support for Siddiqui. This is from an article about the journalist James Foley in Dabiq, the online magazine published by the Islamic State:
"…the simple solution for his release was clearly stated to the Americans. All that Obama had to do was release our Muslim brothers and sisters from their prisons…negotiations were made by the governments of a number of European prisoners, which resulted in the release of a dozen of their prisoners…That left a number of British and American prisoners remaining in the cells of the Islamic State, only after their governments arrogantly refused to release our imprisoned brothers and our sister, Dr. Aafia Siddiqui."
James Foley was beheaded on August 19, 2014.
And this is from another article in Dabiq, about the journalist Steven Sotloff:
"Just days before he was killed, Steven Sotloff's mother was still, impossibly, trying to get Obama to discuss the freeing of Dr. Aafia Siddiqui in exchange for Steven's life. One mum versus an entire government. Of course, she lost."
Steven Sotloff was beheaded on September 2, 2014
And this is from an article in Inspire, the online magazine published by Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula; the article was about the journalist Luke Somers:
"I hereby pose some questions to the reasonable, if there are any: Isn't it our right to demand and seek to release Sheikh Umar Abdur Rahman? Can't they determine the fate of the prisoner Aafia Siddiqu and set her free after long years of injustice, torture and arrest?"
Somers and another hostage were killed by Al-Qaeda on December 6, 2014 during a hostage rescue attempt by US forces.
Here is a short list of those who have called for the release of Aafia Siddiqui (an "operative and facilitator of Al Qaeda" – then-FBI Director Robert Mueller, 2010):
American Muslim Alliance
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb
Islamic State (ISIS)
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula
This is interesting company for Abdul-Samad and the AMA to be keeping.
Dr. Mazen al-Najjar
In April 2013, then-AMA Chairman Agha Saeed wrote an article titled "Political prisoners in the USA." In this article he referred to al-Najjar as his "dear friend" and one of the "dozens of Muslim American political prisoners" in US prisons.
Al-Najjar might have been Saeed's "dear friend," but he was not exactly a "political prisoner." According to a November 2001 statement released by the U.S. Department of Justice:
"The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) today arrested Mazen Al Najjar, in Tampa, Florida…Al Najjar was ordered deported because he violated his visa…Al Najjar also had established ties to terrorist organizations and held leadership positions in the Tampa-based Islamic Concern Project (ICP) and the World and Islam Studies Enterprise…
The ICP and the World and Islam Studies Enterprise are front organizations that raised funds for militant Islamic Palestinian groups such as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) and Hamas. The PIJ, designated by the Secretary of State as a terrorist organization, has claimed responsibility for several acts of terrorism including at least two deadly attacks on Israeli citizens this month. Furthermore, Al Najjar's Tampa-based ICP was responsible for petitioning for other known terrorists to obtain visas to enter the United States."
Saeed's "dear friend" was deported to Lebanon in 2002.
Al-Najjar had raised funds for the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and this is a group that calls for the destruction of Israel.
But as we shall see, al-Najjar was in reality a member of the PIJ, and the AMA actually came out in support of another member of the PIJ: al-Najjar's brother-in-law, Sami al-Arian.
On the previous AMA website were two pictures presented as one. In the picture on the left we have, from left to right, Ako Abdul-Samad, Ramsey Clark, Agha Saeed, Sami al-Arian, and Imam Mahdi Bray, the AMA National Director. In the picture on the right, Bray is missing. So who is Sami al-Arian, a man so prominently displayed on the AMA's former webpage?
On February 20, 2003, after many years of investigation, Sami al-Arian was arrested along with three other members of the PIJ. Al-Arian
"was the alleged leader of the PIJ in the United States, and Secretary of the ‘Shura Council,' or worldwide governing group of the PIJ."
But the AMA had come out in support of al-Arian the year before, when al-Arian's employer, the University of South Florida, had decided to fire him in early 2002:
"Despite the long-standing inquiry, a spokesman for the American Muslim Alliance, a Washington-based coalition of Muslim-American groups, called the university's effort to fire Mr. Al-Arian ‘bigotry and prejudice against the entire Muslim community.'"
At al-Arian's bail hearing in March 2003, Saeed testified for al-Arian that al-Arian's "role has been one of senior statesman in the community."
During al-Arian's subsequent trial in 2005, there were claims made by Al-Arian's attorney that his trial was controlled by Israel and most of the evidence would come from Israel.
The AMA started its support of al-Arian during this trial:
"AMA National Chairman Dr. Agha Saeed Testified on Behalf of Prof. Sami Al-Arian in which Dr. Agha Saeed told the court: ‘Prof. Sami Al-Arian is my friend and during the last ten years we have worked together to mainstream American Muslim politics.'"
The jury acquitted al-Arian of eight of the 18 counts against him, but they deadlocked on three of the four most serious conspiracy charges against him, including the charge of conspiracy to provide services to the PIJ.
The AMA organized a March 12, 2006 "Sami Al-Arian Benefit Banquet" in Anaheim, CA; Agha Saeed was one of the speakers. At the banquet another AMA speaker had this to say:
"…Ali Mazrui of the American Muslim Alliance (AMA) Policy Committee said that Israel's ‘militarism' triggered the terrorism against it and the United States…"
In April 2006 Sami al-Arian pled guilty to one count of conspiracy to provide services to the PIJ. The following is from a US Department of Justice press release about what the man so prominently displayed on the former AMA website admitted to:
"Al-Arian admits that he performed services for the PIJ in 1995 and thereafter, when he was a professor at the University of South Florida and after he knew that the PIJ had been designated by President Clinton as a terrorist organization. Al-Arian also acknowledges in the plea agreement that he knew the PIJ used acts of violence as a means to achieve its objectives. Nevertheless, Al-Arian continued to assist the terrorist organization, for instance, by filing official paperwork to obtain immigration benefits for PIJ associate Bashir Nafi, and concealing the terrorist associations of various individuals associated with the PIJ. He further admits to assisting PIJ associate Mazen al-Najjar in a federal court proceeding, a proceeding in which al-Najjar and Nafi both falsely claimed under oath that they were not associated with the PIJ. Moreover, Al-Arian acknowledges that in late 1995, when Ramadan Shallah, co-conspirator and former director of Al-Arian's "think tank," the World and Islam Studies Enterprise (WISE) was named as the new Secretary General of the PIJ, Al-Arian falsely denied to the media that he knew of Shallah's association with PIJ."
So al-Arian admitted that he knew the PIJ was a violent terrorist organization, but nevertheless he assisted the PIJ, concealed and lied about the terrorist associations of various individuals, and assisted al-Najjar and another defendant when they perjured themselves in federal court by denying any association with the PIJ.
On May 1, 2006, Al-Arian was sentenced to 19 months in prison, to be followed by deportation. At the time of his sentencing, the trial judge, Judge James Moody, had this to say:
"Dr. Al-Arian, as usual, you speak very eloquently. I find it interesting that here in public in front of everyone you praised this country, the same country that in private you referred to as "the great Satan." ...You are a master manipulator. You looked your neighbors in the eyes and said you had nothing to do with the Palestinian Islamic Jihad. This trial exposed that as a lie.... The evidence was clear in this case that you were a leader of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad...when it came to blowing up women and children on buses, did you leap into action then? ... No. You lifted not one finger, made not one phone call. To the contrary, you laughed when you heard about the bombings, what you euphemistically call "operations"...And yet, still in the face of your own words, you continue to lie to your friends and supporters, claiming to abhor violence and to seek only aid for widows and orphans. Your only connection to widows and orphans is that you create them, even among the Palestinians; and you create them, not by sending your children to blow themselves out of existence. No. You exhort others to send their children... You are indeed a master manipulator."
In 2007 Norwegian filmmakers Line Halvorsen and Jan Dalchow produced a movie titled USA vs. Al-Arian to show the "persecution" of al-Arian. The film was shown at different locations in the United States. On October 28th the AMA honored those filmmakers at a luncheon in Newark, CA, conferring on them the "AMA Dr. M.T. Mehdi Excellence in Journalism and Creative Arts Award." The award was presented by Agha Saeed, who said the award was:
"‘For arguably making the best movie of the year about the civil rights crisis in the United States; For exposing the draconian character of the USA PATRIOT ACT; For showing courage of conviction in highlighting the plight of one of America´s most prominent political prisoners, Dr. Sami Al-Arian and his family; For raising consciousness all over the globe about the centrality of the issue of Palestine to world peace.'"
The AMA support for al-Arian continued. On March 31, 2008 "representatives" of the AMA were among a group of Muslims who visited al-Arian at his federal prison in Virginia.
An announcement about an April 15, 2008 press conference to demand the release of al-Arian included this statement by Saeed:
"‘The mistreatment of Dr. Al-Arian is part of the overall oppression of the Palestinian people. This is cruel punishment,' said Agha Saeed, chairman of the American Muslim Taskforce on Civil Rights and Elections (AMT)."
And this is from a May 2008 on-line article at the Free Sami al-Arian website:
Agha Saeed, chair of the American Muslim Taskforce for Civil Rights and Elections and a colleague of Dr. Al-Arian's for many years, reflects on the current situation. "Today, Dr. Al-Arian, one of the most prominent political prisoners in the United States, symbolizes the struggle for freedom of Palestine. Tomorrow, let me predict, based on his heroic sacrifices, he will be recognized as a major 21st century civil rights leader in the Unites States."
Also in May 2008, Saeed had this to say about al-Arian:
"According to Dr. Agha Saeed, chair of the American Muslim Taskforce on Civil Rights and Elections, ‘Dr. Al-Arian is an internationally recognized political prisoner in America [who] has come to symbolize the current struggle for human rights.'"
But in June 2008 a federal grand jury indicted al-Arian on two counts of criminal contempt for refusing to testify in a case that involved local Muslim groups and their ties to terrorism.
In 2012 Agha Saeed referred to al-Arian as "the most distinguished political prisoners [sic] in the United States." Saeed also referred to him as among "the canonical figures" and "the legendary rights leaders."
In 2014 the contempt charges were dropped. In February 2015 al-Arian was deported to Turkey.
The AMA has supported Sami al-Arian for at least 15 years. So here is some of what we know about the man they have been supporting and, based on the current AMA Facebook page, continue to support:
1. He was a leader of the PIJ in the United States, a group dedicated to the destruction of Israel.
2. In private he referred to the United States as the "great Satan."
3. He laughingly referred to the blowing up of women and children as "operations."
4. He assisted PIJ associates during a federal trial in which the associates committed perjury.
5. At his sentencing the judge called him a liar and a "master manipulator."
So what does the "old face" of the AMA show?
1. A history of support for anti-Zionism and anti-Jewish rhetoric.
2. A history of support for anti-Israel rhetoric.
3. And an ongoing history of support for terrorists who hate Jews and the United States, and want to destroy Israel.
Ako Abdul-Samad talked about putting a "new face" on the AMA. But what the AMA really needs is a "new heart."
Is Abdul-Samad the person to put in that "new heart"? Based on the personal organization he founded and his years-long involvement with the AMA, it is doubtful.
On his current Iowa legislative biography site we find the following listed among his "Memberships and Activities": Founder and President of African-American Islamic Association (AAIA). He founded the AAIA in 1989. Two years later, in Libya, the Worldwide African Anti-Zionist Front (WWAAZF) was founded with the goal of "smashing Zionism." A list was later made of the member organizations of the WWAAZF, and Abdul-Samad's own AAIA was at the top of the list.
I and others have made repeated efforts to engage Abdul-Samad in a conversation about the AMA and the AAIA. He has refused. As Dietrich Bonhoeffer said, "Not to speak is to speak. Not to act is to act."
At best the AMA might get a "new face," but it appears it will still have the same heart.
 Hannah Hilyard, "National Islamic organization is coming to Des Moines," KCCI 8 Des Moines, June 24, 2017; accessed at http://www.kcci.com/article/
 There was one report that Abdul-Samad actually became the AMA Chairman in 2015. See Heather Ryan, "Ako Abdul-Samad Puts Iowa Center Stage," Progressive Voices of Iowa – Accessible, June 20, 2017; accessed at https://accesspvi.wordpress.
 Justin Surrency, "National Muslim Organization Makes Iowa Home to Impact Politics," WHO TV.com, June 22, 2017; accessed at http://whotv.com/2017/06/22/
 "National Muslim Organization Makes Iowa Home to Impact Politics."
 Steven Emerson, American Jihad, The Terrorists Living Among Us (New York: The Free Press, 2002), p. 215.
 Ibid., pp. 93-94.
 Ibid., p. 214.
 Ibid., p. 99.
 Ibid., p. 214.
 "Subject: IAP: "50 Years of Occupation" - New York Evening Program," MSANEWS, May 22, 1998; accessed at https://www.
 Steven Emerson, "Islamic Militants on the Lecture Circuit in the United States," Journal of Counterterrorism, Summer 1998; accessed at http://www.steveemerson.com/
 Program for United for Al Quds: A Conference and Fund-raising; accessed at https://www.
 American Jihad, The Terrorists Living Among Us, pp. 214-215.
 Dean E. Murphy, "Mrs. Clinton Says She Will Return Money Raised by a Muslim Group," The New York Times, October 26, 2000; accessed at http://www.nytimes.com/2000/
 Larry Cohler-Esses and Edward Lewine, "Rick hits Hil on 50G Donation. She vows to return contribution by Israel foe," New York Daily News, October 26, 2000; accessed at http://www.nydailynews.com/
 Screen shot accessed at https://islamseries.files.
 Paul Kujawsky, "Palestinian terror stretches back to RFK killing at the Ambassador Hotel,"
Jewish Journal, May 29, 2008; accessed at http://jewishjournal.com/
 Yardena Arar, "An Arab-American talks to assassin of Robert Kennedy," The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 27, 1980, p. 8A; accessed at https://islamseries.files.
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 Sara Fritz and Ronald J. Ostrow, "Authorities find new clues in N.Y. explosion," Los Angeles Times, March 7, 1993; accessed at http://articles.latimes.com/
 Eric Pace, "M. T. Mehdi, 70, Arab-American Leader," The New York Times, February 25, 1998; accessed at https://mobile.nytimes.com/
 Edward F. Mickolous and Susan L. Simmons, Terrorism, 1992-1995: A Chronology of Events and A Selectively Annotated Bibliography (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997), p. 765.
 Screen shot accessed at https://islamseries.files.
 Terrence McCoy, "‘Lady al-Qaeda': The American-educated PhD the Islamic State desperately wants freed," The Washington Post, August 28, 2014; accessed at https://www.washingtonpost.
 "Aafia Siddiqui Sentenced in Manhattan Federal Court to 86 Years for Attempting to Murder U.S. Nationals in Afghanistan and Six Additional Crimes," FBI Press Release, September 23, 2010; accessed at https://archives.fbi.gov/
 Janine Di Giovanni, "Aafia Siddiqui: the woman ISIS wanted to trade for Foley, then Sotloff," Newsweek, September 16, 2014; accessed at http://www.newsweek.com/2014/
 "Terror-Related Trials Marked by Claims of Israeli Control," Anti-Defamation League, February 9, 2010; accessed at https://web.archive.org/web/
 "Aafia Siddiqui Sentenced in Manhattan Federal Court to 86 Years for Attempting to Murder U.S. Nationals in Afghanistan and Six Additional Crimes."
 Azan, No. 1, p. 58, March 2013.
 "Foley's Blood is on Obama's hands," Dabiq, No. 3, August 2014, pp. 37-38.
 "The Blood of Shame," Dabiq, No.14, April 2016, p. 54.
 "A message for the American people regarding the killing of the hostage Luke Somers," Inspire, No. 13, Winter 2014, p. 8.
 Dr. Agha Saeed, "Political prisoners in the USA," The Nation, April 22, 2013; accessed at http://nation.com.pk/columns/
 "Department of Justice Statement Regarding the Arrest of Mazen al Najjar," United States Department of Justice, November 24, 2001; accessed at https://www.justice.gov/
 Holly Fletcher, "Palestinian Islamic Jihad," Council on Foreign Relations, April 10, 2008; accessed at https://www.cfr.org/
 Screen shot accessed at https://islamseries.files.
 "Members of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad arrested, charged with racketeering and conspiracy to provide support to terrorists," United States Department of Justice, February 20, 2003: accessed at https://www.justice.gov/
 Judith Miller, "Traces of Terror: The Money Trail; A Professor's Activism Leads Investigators to Look Into Possible Terrorism Links," The New York Times, July 23, 2002; accessed at http://www.nytimes.com/2002/
 "Statement of Steven Emerson to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States," National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, July 9, 2003; accessed at https://govinfo.library.unt.
 "Terror-Related Trials Marked by Claims of Israeli Control."
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